115.1.3: 3D PRODUCTION PIPELINE: LIGHTING, RENDERING & COMPOSITING

Lighting

Lighting, as the term indicates includes monitoring the numerous light features within the shot or scene.  The Lighting expert will use scripts, storyboards and additional means to create the ‘goal’ of the shot beforehand (lighting setup) as it’s vital to comprehend the directors idea in order to create it digitally.  After the ‘goal’ of the shot is confirmed, the Lighting expert then creates it by making using of several lights like, point light, key light, rim light, and fill light, to attain a certain result that can be further operated using their several properties.  By means of these properties a Lighting expert can describe how light act together with different kinds of resources, how the act leads the spectator, atmosphere and mood, harmony and colour theory, and intricacies of the textures involved.  The lighting procedure is so involved that it’s arguable as to whether Lighting experts have additional control than Texture Artistes when it comes to a shot’s mood, colour scheme and general atmosphere.

Rendering

Out of all the procedures within the 3D Production Pipeline, Rendering, is the best technically complex.  But, it’s easier to comprehend if you think of it like a photograph that needs to be advanced and published before it is shown.  Just like the photograph, a model is not anything more than a mathematical demonstration of surfaces and points (polygons and vertices) in 3-Dimensional space.

“The term ‘rendering’ happens when a 3D software packages render engine translates a scene from a mathematical approximation to a finalised 2D image.  During this process the entirety of the scenes elements, including, spatial, texturing and lighting information are combined to determine the colour value of each pixel in the flattened image.” Slick, J.

There are two kinds of rendering whose only dissimilarity is in the speed at which they render. Offline or Pre-Rendering and Real-Time Rendering.

Real-Time Rendering: is mostly used in interactive graphics and gaming where pictures must be estimated at eighteen-twenty frames per second at the least in order for motion to look smooth.  This is attained by devoted graphics cards (GPUs) pre-assembling as ample data as possible. The majority of a game’s situation will be ‘baked’ to improve render speed and pre-computed.

Offline or Pre-Rendering: is when the speed isn’t an importance and can attain photo-realistic qualities. Bigger studios have been recognised to devote up to 90 hrs. Render period to separate frames.  This kind of rendering also allows for more in depth models and textures that can be in additional of much higher poly counts and 4k resolution.

There are likewise three diverse rendering methods each with its own disadvantages and advantages.  The three methods are, raytracing, radiosity and scanline(rasterization).

Raytracing: traces single or more rays of light from the camera to every pixel. The colour for each pixel is determined by the light rays’ contact with each object in its sketched path.  As an outcome, raytracing can attain photo-realistic class but is exponentially easy.

Radiosity: pretends surface colour by accounting for indirect lighting giving the act its advanced colour bleeding and shadows. Radiosity is usually used in combination with raytracing to recover visual quality.

Scanline rendering: is used for real-time rendering as it is the fastest, due to the detail that it renders polygon through polygon rather than pixel through pixel.  This method used in combination with ‘baked’ illumination can attain speeds of 60 frames per/ second or greater.

Compositing

Compositing: is the procedure of merging rendered elements from numerous sources to generate the last product which might be a motionless or animated image.  There are three kinds of compositing, layer-based, deep compositing and node-based.

Layer-based: compositing has separate media in a composite in its own distinct layer within a timeline.  Individual layer is then rendered on top of the other. For the reason that this Layer-based rendering is not suitable to complex composites, mainly 3D.

Deep compositing: is a relative new arrival to the act but is fast becoming the appropriate choice for compositing answers.  It’s alike to layer-based compositing but, as an alternative of being an even 2D image, deep compositing has a collection of standards for Z space.  This allows realistic effects such as clouds or fog as pictures can be positioned at numerous points in Z space.

Node-based: compositing links media objects and effects in a ‘tree’ structure on a procedural map.

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